2014 年 11 月 07 日 , ,

當一個人的時候,你曾經覺得旁邊有人、甚至直覺那是鬼嗎?雖然目前為止科學無法證明鬼魂存在,但至少可解釋某些見鬼的體驗,可能只是因為大腦被騙了。瑞士科學家就設計了一套簡單的機器與實驗,告訴我們「感覺有鬼」其實是在「感覺自己」。

這種「身邊有鬼」的感覺,科學家稱為「存在的覺察」(feeling of a presence, FoP),經常會發生在沉船的倖存者或登山者身上,讓他們覺得旁邊有人;另外在一些有神經或精神疾病的患者身上也常會發生。不過瑞士的科學家發現,當這些人產生這種感覺時,往往會有一種巧合:當自己在走路時,會覺得那個「鬼」也在走路;當自己坐著時,「鬼」也是坐著。這讓這些科學家假設,我們的大腦可能是因為某些原因,把原本是對我們自己身體的感覺,解釋成發生在身體以外,因此惟一的結論就是「見鬼了」。

於是瑞士洛桑聯邦理工學院的科學家,開始設計一款機械以試圖證明這個假設。令人有些震驚的是,這項實驗成功到讓六分之一的受試者嚇到不敢做完實驗,「見鬼」的感覺十分逼真。這項研究刊登在「當代生物學」(Current Biology) 雜誌。

他們首先找來 12 位有癲癇、中風、偏頭痛或腦瘤的病人蒐集資料,這些人都曾有過這種見鬼感覺,一次維持了幾秒鐘或幾分鐘。研究團隊追蹤到這些病患的額頂葉皮層、島葉、顳頂葉等處,認為可能是這些地方受到傷害或產生混淆,以致於這些訊號其實來自於他們自己的身體,但由於大腦運作異常,訊號無法整合,因此他們會誤以為這些感覺來自體外,因此就覺得是見鬼了。這三處地方都是處理動作與空間定位的區域。

團隊設計了一套機械,並找來另外一組健康受試者操作。這些受試者必須矇住雙眼,然後推拉面前的一支拉桿,這支拉桿操縱著受試者身後的一支棒子,讓受試者往前推拉桿時,棒子就會戳到他的背部,這樣會給受試者一種感覺,就是自己實際上在目前所在位置的前方,而且正在戳著自己的背。

實驗的第二階段,則是把拉桿與棒子之間的連動時間延遲了 0.5 秒甚至更多。這樣的延遲讓受試者強烈地覺得背後有其他人在戳他,而且還感受到自己的身體有點往後方那個「人」的位置漂過去。

實驗還有後續。團隊又找來另一組受試者,重覆前述的實驗,但差別是在實驗開始前,安排四個研究人員跟受試者處在同一間實驗室中,並且告訴受試者待會兒實驗開始後,某些研究人員可能會走近受試者。在進行完兩階段實驗後,受試者說感覺到有其他人靠近他,人數最多的案例甚至高達 4 人,但事實上,研究開始後那些原本站在那邊的研究人員,早就離開了。

該校的 Giulio Rognini 博士表示,這些「亂象」是由於大腦對於身體的動作的預測與實際的接收到的訊號不一致(發生時間延遲)的結果,也就是說,是一種感官產生混亂的意思,使得大腦在原本對於自身的自我感知之外,又創造出第二個不在實際身體位置的感知,然後就只能解釋成「見鬼」。

目前研究團隊已經開始用磁振造影研究健康受試者在實驗過程中大腦的運作情形。Rognini 表示希望能夠透過這項研究的結果幫助思覺失調症的患者,進一步了解患者產生幻覺的機制,讓他們的感覺能夠回復平衡。

(圖片來源:Alain Herzog/EPFL )

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